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YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK ?

updated 12-12-13

Yellowstone's massive mantle plume is getting bigger. This reservoir of super heated viscose rock is at least two and a half times larger than previously thought. A new study disclosed on Oct. 27th at the Geological Society of America annual conference, stated a huge earthquake measuring 9.0 mag. or larger as a result of Yellowstone's massive mantle plume expansion may be a higher risk in the near future, than a eventual volcanic eruption.

New pictures of Yellowstone's plume show the reservoir is about 80 kilometers long and 20 kilometers wide. "I don't know of any other magma body that's been imaged that's that big," says Robert Smith, a geophysicist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City.

Researchers report the super-volcano underneath the state of Wyoming has been rising at a record rate since 2004. Its floor has gone up three inches per year for the last three years indicating the fastest rate since records began in 1923

 

Because concurrent swarms have never been detected in the past, the answers aren't in yet. Geophysicist Bob Smith says: "I have never witnessed two simultaneous earthquake swarms in my 53 years of monitoring seismic activity in and around the Yellowstone Caldera". Tremblers from the three quake swarms mostly hit in three areas: Lewis Lake, the Lower Geyser Basin and the northwest part of Norris Geyser Basin.

 

The largest earthquake shook the ground near Old Faithful Geyser on Sept. 15th, 2013. The epicenter of the magnitude 3.6 quake, the largest in Yellowstone in about a year, was just 6 miles to the north of Old Faithful.

 

Norris Lake

A strong enough earthquake, like the one that occurred out at Hebgen Lake in 1959 measuring 7.3 to 7.5 on the Richter magnitude scale, caused nearly 300 features on the Yellowstone landscape to erupt, 160 of which had no previous record of geysers.

Update time = Tue Sep 24 4:33:09 MDT 2013 Small - but a lot of them:

 MAG    DATE    LOCAL-TIME  LAT     LON    DEPTH    LOCATION
        y/m/d     h:m:s     deg     deg     km
 2.8  2013/09/24 04:24:23 44.733N 110.783W  9.1   27 km (17 mi) ENE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 0.3  2013/09/23 06:41:33 44.864N 110.710W 17.9   19 km (12 mi) S   of  Gardiner, MT
 1.8  2013/09/23 04:57:38 44.300N 111.001W 12.1   33 km (20 mi) NE  of  Warm River, ID
 0.9  2013/09/23 02:51:19 44.820N 110.747W  5.2   24 km (15 mi) S   of  Gardiner, MT
 2.7  2013/09/23 02:32:50 44.232N 110.763W  5.1   46 km (29 mi) ENE of  Warm River, ID
 2.0  2013/09/23 02:30:21 44.234N 110.760W  4.4   46 km (29 mi) ENE of  Warm River, ID
 1.4  2013/09/23 02:29:48 44.223N 110.751W  2.3   47 km (29 mi) ENE of  Warm River, ID
 1.6  2013/09/21 22:37:26 44.748N 110.778W  9.0   28 km (17 mi) ENE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.1  2013/09/21 00:58:58 44.759N 111.185W 12.3   12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.1  2013/09/20 14:00:57 44.573N 110.817W  6.2   25 km (15 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 2.0  2013/09/19 23:57:37 44.724N 110.644W  5.5   35 km (22 mi) S   of  Gardiner, MT
 1.2  2013/09/19 06:00:35 44.944N 111.446W  3.5   38 km (24 mi) SSW of  Big Sky, MT
 1.6  2013/09/18 09:55:26 44.571N 110.828W  6.3   24 km (15 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.6  2013/09/18 09:54:51 44.558N 110.822W  6.0   25 km (16 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.1  2013/09/17 19:03:40 44.532N 111.091W 15.5   15 km ( 9 mi) S   of  West Yellowstone, MT
 0.5  2013/09/17 16:39:49 44.021N 110.715W  1.4   37 km (23 mi) NE  of  Alta, WY
 0.8  2013/09/17 14:04:52 44.574N 110.811W  4.4   25 km (16 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 0.7  2013/09/17 13:58:49 44.590N 110.829W  5.6   23 km (15 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.7  2013/09/17 05:53:48 44.617N 110.815W  1.6   24 km (15 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT

Smith says he believes that at least two of the swarms are probably related to each other.

The three swarms hit in the following areas:  Lewis Lake, the Lower Geyser Basin and the northwest part of Norris Geyser Basin.

Earlier this month, on September 15, the largest earthquake to rock Yellowstone in over a year occurred about six miles north of  the Old Faithful Geyser.  Its magnitude was about 3.6 at its epicenter.   It takes a magnitude of about 3.0 for people to feel it, a Yellowstone representative named Al Nash told the Jackson Hole News & Guide.

The recent swarms of earthquakes began on September 10 and finished up on September 16.

The University of Utah put out a statement saying that altogether 130 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 3.6 occurred in the area, with most of them being located in the Lower Geyser Basin.  But, including many smaller events which were not detected, there were many more quakes than this.

The recent swarms produced four earthquakes which, although they were not large, were significant enough in size to be felt.

The first, which had a magnitude of 3.5, happened on September 13, about 17 miles northeast of West Yellowstone, Montana.  The next two tremblors to be felt occurred early on the morning of September 15 with magnitudes of 3.2 and 3.4 respectively.  These two occurred in rapid succession, with one being detected at 5:10 AM and the other at 5:11 AM.  The quakes happened about 15 miles southeast of West Yellowstone.  The largest earthquake recording during the swarm, a 3.6, was measured nearby about 4 1/2 hours later.

According to Nash, a strong enough earthquake, like the 7.3-7.5 quake that shook the Hebgen Lake area in 1959, has the potential to change the activity of the geysers in the area.  And, in fact the 1959 quake did.  It caused nearly 300 features to erupt, included 160 where there were no previous records of geysers.  None of the current earthquakes were powerful enough to create these types of changes, however.

Smith says he believes that the current swarms of earthquakes may, in fact, be related to the 1959 earthquake.  “We think that much of the seismicity is still aftershocks from that event in 1959. It can go on for hundreds of years.”

Usually only about half a dozen earthquakes occur each year in Yellowstone, Smith noted, so it is quite unusual for this level of swarm activity to rock the park.

Written by:  Nancy Schimelpfening

Missoulian

KOMO News

Jackson Hole News & Guide

 

 

 

A 10,000 YEAR OLD GLACIER SUDDENLY MELTED - WHY? 6-30-10

The most recent swarm started after the January 2010 Haiti earthquake. With 1620 small earthquakes between January 17, 2010 and February 1, 2010, this swarm  was the second largest ever recorded in the Yellowstone Caldera. The largest  of these shocks was a magnitude 3.8 on January 21, 2010  at 11:16 PM  MST.[15][18] This swarm reached the background levels by 21st of February. 2010 2009 -over 500 Earthquakes at Yellowstone in  the last week 18 earthquakes on January 2, 2009 12 earthquakes on January 1, 2009 58 earthquakes on December 31, 2008 23 Earthquakes on December 30, 2008 38 Earthquakes on December 29, 2008

103 Earthquakes on December 28, 2008

 

Posted by geologist Christopher       C. Sanders on January 1, 2009.

       "I am advising all State officials around       Yellowstone National Park for a potential State of Emergency.  In the last       week over 252 earthquakes have been observed by the USGS.  We have a 3D       view on the movement of magma rising underground.  We have all of the pre       warning signs of a major eruption from a super volcano.  - I want everyone       to leave Yellowstone National Park and for 200 miles around the volcano       caldera."

NEW  YELLOWSTONE WEBCAM

RECENT QUAKES IN YELLOWSTONE

YELLOWSTONE CALDERA GROWING AGAIN

COSMIC DUST CLOUD - INCOMING updated as reports come in 

THIS MAY BE IT!!!

YOU'VE BEEN WARNED BEFORE!!!!

 

ESA satellite reveals Yellowstone's deep secret

Satellite images acquired by ESA's ERS-2 revealed the recently discovered changes in Yellowstone's caldera are the result of molten rock movement 15 kilometres below the Earth's surface, according to a recent study published in Nature.

Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, InSAR for short, Charles Wicks, Wayne Thatcher and other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists mapped the changes in the northern rim of the caldera, or crater, and discovered it had risen about 13 centimetres from 1997 to 2003.

InSAR, a sophisticated version of 'spot the difference', involves mathematically combining different radar images, acquired from as near as possible to the same point in space at different times, to create digital elevation models and reveal otherwise undetectable changes occurring between image acquisitions.

"We know now how mobile and restless the Yellowstone caldera actually is. Ground-based measurements can be more efficiently deployed because of our work," Thatcher said. "The research could not have been done without satellite radar data."

 

NOTE: THE  VIDEOS BELOW ARE FICTIONAL- BASED ON FACTS

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART I

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART II

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART III

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART IV

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO  - PART V

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART VI

PART II OF THE  FILM

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART I

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART II

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART III

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART IV

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART V

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART VI

 

 

http://www.seis.utah.edu/helicorder/heli/yellowstone/

 

 

YELLOWSTONE CLOSED BY FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES

BBC FILMING DOCUMENTARY ON JUNE 22, 2004

EDITORS NOTE: On 7-31-05, I watched a film on the        Discovery Channel with Tom Brokaw, most of which was fiction based on a future scenario        but, based on real science of Yellowstone history, and using real films        from Mt. St. Helens' (1980), Phillipines - Mt. Pinatubo (1991), Hawaii,        and Central America.  The film was very well done with real science        interspersed into the fictionalized future scenario.               The scenario was based on the real 2003 heat up        of the Norris Geyser at Yellowstone and the fact that it has been shown        that the land is raising over time.  Norris Basin itself has raised        5 inches, and the entire Caldera has raised 35 inches since 1923.              It is also known that one end of Yellowstone        Lake is 100 feet higher than it used to be and flooding the land at the        other end and killing the trees.  Trees in various parts of the        park are dying because their roots are cooking from the heat under the        ground.  Bison have died from gas coming out of the holes in the        ground.                 Water is now boiling along the trails.        Some people have fallen into this water and been severely injured. Some        paths are now closed.               In the film, they told people that there        might be an imminent small eruption and they should prepare for 3 days        of being home, and then evacuated all the people from 100 miles around        the caldera.               In reality, if there is an eruption,        larger than Mt. St. Helens, we would need at least a year's worth of        supplies because no food could be grown, farm lands would be useless,        temperatures would drop by as much as 15 degrees. Within 3 months, the        entire world would be covered by clouds.               Millions of people would die - most        within the surrounding 100 miles - fewer people would die from inhalation of ash        as it spreads mostly east and south from the caldera in widening circles        around the area. 600 miles from the        caldera is not safe at all.                FEMA could not handle this big an event.        The U.S. economy would come to a halt.  Grocery stores would empty        out, airlines, trains, buses, and roads would stop.                Though at the end of the film, during the        last half hour, Tom Brokaw and workers at Yellowstone Park tried to make        it seem like nothing is going to happen, it is already known that the        scientists who are monitoring what is going on at Yellowstone is being        withheld from the public.               The real truth is, WILL NOT BE TOLD HOW        BIG OR HOW BAD AN ERUPTION CAN BE, and the last word by the Yellowstone        worker was, "Come and visit Yellowstone and see how it really        is."                This is probably a good idea -        people 'should' go see what is going on.  Don't just go there and        see how pretty all the steam and water is that is shooting up out of the        ground. Find out the real science of the area and how it is        changing.  

Yellowstone - Mystery, Intrigue & Planted Sensors

508  EARTHQUAKE SWARM IN APRIL, 2004

LATEST NEWS

YELLOWSTONE EXPLOSION COMPARISONS

Its worse than we are being told

Excerpt from: http://www.syzygyjob.net/dreams/messages/39393.shtml        

Then Menno asks if we will be struck soon by that meteor an angel        had told him          about years ago. This angel said no, not that one. Then, I saw a meteor        hit the          earth and the angel said, it will strike in the ocean near Yukatuk,        Alaska. It will          cause a tidal wave all up and down the west coast. It will trigger the        volcano in          Yellowstone. Then I saw the volcano with dark, gray, billowing smoke        rising up          out of it. Menno asks me if I was sure it was Yellowstone. I asked him        if he ever          saw Yellowstone's volcano. He said yes.
        I said okay, this is what I am seeing. I see a volcano, that is not as        high as say          Mount Rainer, Mount Baker. It kind of slopes to a peak and it has no        snow on it,          it is all brown. Menno said, well that's what it looks like alright. So,        he asks if it          will blow right away and the angel said No, but within 3 -3 1/2months        after it starts          billowing this smoke. Then Menno asks, if we had understanding right        about Rev.18,          that Babylon is US (New York City). The angel said partly right. He        said, when          New York gets destroyed, it will escalate things in Iraq and Babylon        there will also          be destroyed. Then, world events will start to unfold.

David Booth - proven psychic- had a vision in March of 2003.  He saw himself in space, looking down on the earth. He saw a dark, planetary object coming from the south end of earth - out of the southern Hemisphere.  As this planetary object came past earth, the size of which would fit between the earth and the moon - he saw the western end of the U.S. blow up with fire and blasts of smoke and ash.  From there, the whole earth rippled.  Yellowstone had blown up.

Gordon Michael Scallion (psychic)- on March 16, 2003 - had a vision that two lightbeings showed him that Wyoming and Utah were glowing red.  The lightbeings said, "This will change the world in 18 months."  (18 months from March 16, 2003 = September, 2004)

From: jmccanneyscience.com

March 23, 2004 7PM CST special emergency update ... word just came in from a private  contact that there will be a major news announcement tonight regarding Yellowstone  National Park ... to be released by one of the major networks ... initial UNCONFIRMED  reports indicate that the volcanic bubble under Yellowstone's basin has raised over 100  feet in the past day and there are indications it is ready to blow ... i repeat these are  UNCONFIRMED reports that have come to me through what i consider reliable sources      and therefore am posting so you can watch for the official announcement ... if this is true  then it is clear this has been known about for some time and the USGS page is as we have  said a total misinformation site about the seriousness of Yellowstone and the evacuation  preparations that should have been underway LONG ago  ... jim mccanney 

David Booth and Wayne Green were kicked off of the Coasttocoastam.com show on  3-18-04 for not revealing what the Nun (Sister Lucy) who gave the Fatima prophecies had  said to him in a private meeting.  David DID say that it was said, "The New Star will soon  shine." which refers to Wormwood and the book of Revelation: 

CHERNOBYL IS UKRAINIAN FOR WORMWOOD     

I will will mention the aquatic dog. Canis Major and Minor are the     "dog"      constellations, and Sirius is the Dog Star. In the Greek myths, these are     the      dogs that accompany the Hunter, Orion. Sirius and Orion in the     Egyptian      system are, of course, Isis and Osiris who produce Horus; i.e. a     Trinity.      I have theorized that the following Nostadamus quatrain, C2, Q41, is     related:     

The great star will burn for seven days, The cloud will make the sun appear double: The large mastiff will howl all night When the great pontiff changes his abode.       

The "large mastiff" in the theory is Canis Major/Sirius/Isis, which     corresponds      to the Woman With Child in Revelation 12. This is speaking of dreams,     visions,      inspirations, etc., the communication from the collective unconscious at     the end      of the cycle. Signposts/ guideposts are left for us in the waking state "on     land"      by way of coincidences and synchronicities.   

But, to notice them, we need to stay awake.

Howling all day and night, I remain, your spiritual brother,

Joe Mason Hunter, assisted by two aquatic dogs

NOTE: Comets are frequently responsible for causing weather anomalies like El Nino and earthquakes and volcanoes to explode. Several comets are coming this year, and will be  seen by the naked eye beginning in May. By September, Venus (the morning Daybreak star)  crosses the face of the sun.  These are the two suns.

December 17, 2003 - DREAM (implanted in my head after I heard a        bell ring in my ear:        

There were 2 puzzles on the floor  -one with small pieces and        1 with large pieces. These had          to be put together before we could leave.

So, I did the large pieced puzzle. It was of the United States.        The right half of the U.S. was          divided from the left half, at the Mississippi River.

So, I pulled the right half over to the left half and stuck them        together. Missouri        was a large          Teddy Bear. Wyoming had a train locomotive with smoke coming out of        its stack and was          lower than the other pieces like there was a layer missing.          (Wyoming is where Yellowstone is)          See: http://www.earthmountainview.com/yellowstone/yellowstone.htm

I finished up my part of the cleaning and left to go home. On the        way, it was like I was flying          over the roadway and all the traffic was going East and people were in a        panic and passing          each other in their hurry. I saw two cars crash and roll end over end. I        stopped to access the          crash and damage and I watched, along with other people as the car        repaired itself into a          picture like a house until it looked better than brand new. It was        amazing to watch.

Prophetic Vision of Yellowstone Volcano
March 16, 2007         Diane M.
To Holly Deyo:
        I have been told to share this with you by spirit. Your work has been so         meaningful to  
me I hope this is useful         for you and Stan.
        I had a prophetic vision come to me the middle of February. Since then,         I have had more         parts of the vision filled in on almost a daily basis. My         vision was significant volcanic         activity in Yellowstone National Park, on March 17         2007.  Although it is shown to me         as a large eruption, it does not devastate mankind. The eruption is         bigger than Mount         Saint Helens. Even though all of the signs are there, the eruption         catches people         off guard.
        The Eastern Part of the United States is effected from the ash, and         there is some         civil unrest, but not too much because people cannot         be out in the ash. Most of the         civil unrest is surrounded with people trying to get supplies.
        Colorado is somewhat affected, but not devastated. California         escapes most of the         effect. Although, there is some crop failure, most citizens of the         United States will         continue to have access to sufficient food.
However, the world will feel the effects,         since the United States will not be able to export         any significant quantities of food. The parts of the world that are         already suffering from         food shortages will get worse. This event will start the beginning of a         period of food         shortages.
        In the vision I was shown that although several catastrophic events have         already         happened, this event is to serve as a wake up call, so that people can         prepare for the         even rougher road ahead.

 

See:  http://www.whatdoesitmean.com See: James McCanney and the Comets See:  Earthquake predictions for the month See:  http://www.drsky.com/    Asteroid Toutatis arriving in September What else is coming? -  two comets See:  http://www.greatdreams.com/lostland/pole2.htm See:  http://www.greatdreams.com/1950DA.htm See: http://www.greatdreams.com/1998ox4.htm See:  http://www.greatdreams.com/disaster-dreams.htm See:  Venus transition - June 8, 2004 See: Wormwood in the Bible Code

SEE:  QUAKE WATCHLIST AND INFORMATION

See:  Bible Code 1  -  Bible Code 2  - Bible Code 3  - Bible Code 4 Bible Code Analysis pages These Bible Codes and Analysis were done by Tom Gaston and Chris Van Houten THE BIBLE CODE PREDICTS THAT YELLOWSTONE WILL BLOW MARCH 31 OR APRIL 1, 2004 [Editors note:  There were multiple quakes this week ]

April 2004 Yellowstone Seismicity Summary

During April 2004, 508 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone region. The largest shock to occur during this period was a magnitude 2.7 earthquake on April 17 at 1:22 AM MST, located about 8.8 miles northwest of Madison Junction, Wyoming.

A notable swarm of small earthquakes occurred April 12-23. These were located on the northwest side of Yellowstone National Park and northwest of the Yellowstone caldera. The events were generally small and none were reported felt. The swarm included 465 earthquakes. Magnitudes ranged from -1.2 to 2.7, with 8 events greater than 2.0 magnitude. .

Magnitude 4.0

Date-Time Wednesday, April 7, 2004 at 15:54:12 (UTC) = Coordinated Universal Time

Wednesday, April 7, 2004 at 9:54:12 AM = local time at epicenter

Location 43.605°N, 110.409°W Depth 5 km (3.1 miles) set by location program Region WYOMING Distances 32 km (20 miles) ENE (63°) from Jackson, WY 34 km (21 miles) E (86°) from Teton Village, WY 36 km (22 miles) ENE (58°) from Rafter J Ranch, WY 340 km (211 miles) NNE (21°) from Salt Lake City, UT

Location Uncertainty horizontal +/- 4.7 km (2.9 miles); depth fixed by location program Parameters Nst= 25, Nph= 25, Dmin=17.8 km, Rmss=0.74 sec, Gp= 83°, M-type=local magnitude (ML), Version=Q Source USGS NEIC (WDCS-D) Event ID usgzba

 

Update time = Thu Apr 8 8:00:02 MDT 2004

MAG DATE LOCAL-TIME LAT LON DEPTH LOCATION

0.9 2004/04/07 08:31:54 44.779N 110.826W 5.2 11 km ( 7 mi) WNW of Norris Junc., WY 0.2 2004/04/07 02:49:10 44.709N 111.044W 8.7 7 km ( 4 mi) NE of W. Yellowstone, MT 1.2 2004/04/05 20:19:18 44.364N 111.008W 6.7 18 km (11 mi) SW of Old Faithful, WY 1.3 2004/04/05 15:03:06 44.649N 110.435W 0.2 10 km ( 7 mi) NNW of Fishing Bridge, WY 0.7 2004/04/05 11:42:35 44.771N 110.831W 4.3 12 km ( 7 mi) WNW of Norris Junc., WY 0.6 2004/04/05 04:01:05 44.348N 110.553W 3.0 8 km ( 5 mi) SSE of West Thumb, WY 0.1 2004/04/04 06:46:30 44.861N 110.815W 7.3 16 km (10 mi) SW of  Mammoth, WY 1.2 2004/04/04 06:22:44 44.711N 110.659W 6.8 4 km ( 2 mi) SE of Norris Junc., WY 0.8 2004/04/04 03:22:14 44.720N 110.664W 2.6 3 km ( 2 mi) ESE of Norris Junc., WY 0.3 2004/04/03 01:41:38 44.773N 110.834W 1.6 12 km ( 7 mi) WNW of Norris Junc., WY 0.3 2004/04/02 17:24:17 44.783N 110.944W 4.6 17 km (10 mi) NNW of Madison Junc., WY 0.2 2004/04/02 12:27:42 44.788N 110.947W 5.6 17 km (11 mi) NNW of Madison Junc., WY 1.1 2004/04/01 23:02:27 44.775N 111.082W 9.7 13 km ( 8 mi) N of W. Yellowstone, MT 0.6 2004/04/01 21:40:59 44.774N 111.084W 9.0 12 km ( 8 mi) N of W. Yellowstone, MT 1.3 2004/04/01 21:02:25 44.770N 111.086W 8.9 12 km ( 7 mi) N of W. Yellowstone, MT

 

There are 15 quakes on this map. I cropped the official map so the reader could see the quakes full size. See http://www.seis.utah.edu/recenteqs/Maps/111-45.html

4-14-01 - I had this dream at exactly 2:00 a.m.       

DREAM - I was with a woman and her small children, her extended family      and a bunch of other people in hilly county.  Off to the northwest from      where we stood was a mountain or extremely high hill. It seemed to be several      miles away. It was a lovely summer day, the sun was shining, and people were      strolling around enjoying the weather. The mountain didn't have any snow      on top, so it had to have been high summer.      

All of a sudden, a spout of hot water came up out of the side of the mountain,      similar to Old Faithful. But it shot up so high and so far that it sprayed      hot water all the way over to where we were, several miles away.       

We were all rather shocked, and started to talk about it. And while we      discussed this event, it happened again, only stronger this time, only it      didn't stop, the water started spraying higher and higher and all of a sudden,      the whole mountain let loose, water, steam, smoke, dirt, rocks, (like mount      St. Helen's) except it just kept getting bigger and bigger. We knew that      what went up had to come down, and there didn't seem to be any place to      hide.       

It seemed stupid to run into a wooden building, but that's all I could      think of. We ran down a winding path to a wooden building like a garage,      between some fruit trees or whatever those trees were. The grandfather was      carrying one of the little kids, the woman carried one of the toddlers, and      a couple other kids around age 5 or 6 ran alongside. I hurried them along      the path, which was actually more or less back towards the mountain that      was exploding. Somehow, miraculously, the path we took was still dry, and      we ran fast enough that we made it into the garage before the deluge of hot      water, dust, ash, and rocks came back down.        

I doubt that the other people made it out alive, because there was no      where else to run. The whole mountain had disintegrated in explosion after      explosion.      

NOTE: I hope I never see a disaster like that again. It was horrendous.       (The clock now says 2:22)       

MORE: I went to lay down to meditate on 'when' this was going to occur.      Instead, I saw a white radio. On the front of the radio where the station      would be listed, it said, "Microfront', and underneath that it said, "Volcanic      Center" and then the word 'underground' came to me.      

       

From: MCYoung/Tx,       

Subject: Another Yellowstone Dream/Vision       

Friday October 10,2003 4:44am(cdt)      

I was in a very large underground military or research facility though      not sure where. It was a huge open room with several hundred people working      or standing in small groups discussing what appeared to be computer print-outs      and maps.      

I saw rows of computers with men and women sitting in front of them. I      saw seismic drums along one wall(about 100 of them)all in a row. Next to      each of these were metal bins of some sort and they were catching computer      print-outs from these drums?       

Have never seen metal bins like these next to seismic drums. Several people      were retrieving the print-outs from the bins and then didcussing them.      

The most prominent feature in this open area was a huge screen upon one      wall displaying a map of the US, Canada, and Mexico.      

All the states were outlined and labled, including Canada and Mexico.      There was a large Red circle(shaded in)covering Yellowstone Park and some      of its surrounding areas.      

Beyond this there was a very large irregular area of the US and Canada      and a tiny part of Mexico shaded in Orange. All of WA, OR, ID, MT, WY, CO,      NM, ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, MN, WI, IA, MO, IL, LA, AR were covered in Orange.      

Northern California, most of NV, UT and, TX were also shaded in Orange.      The areas of Canada which border on the US were also shaded Orange with the      largest area being to the north and east of MN. Southwestern BC and Vancouver      Island were shaded in Orange and a small area of Mexico just below NM and      the Big Bend of TX.      

There were shaded areas extending over the Pacific from the Queen Charlotte      Islands down to San Francisco. Only the the norteastern part of AZ was shaded.      The western areas of IN, TN, and MS were also shaded in Orange.      

There were other smaller screens on each side of the huge one. These screens      showed the same map of US, Canada, Mexico but appeared to be some kind of      weather tracking maps. They showed weather radar, wind directions, the jet      streams,satellite images, aviation info and the like.      

Now I have no clue what exactly was occurring but there was clearly a      situation and the people in the room were looking very intense, worried and      they were all very busy, not one slacker in the room.      

From the looks of it, Yellowstone seemed to be at the center of all this      activity as it was circled in bright Red on the huge map. I do not know what      the Orange shading was about.      

This is all I recall. I was awakened by a loud electronic sound in my      ear and I sat up looked at my clock which read 4:44am(again!).      

I've been reading my journals and believe this is added information related      to yesterday morning's dream which I posted below, and also the dream of      October 3rd which I also posted.      

I wasn't able to get back yesterday due to the weather so will catch up      as much as possible now before the next round of storms rolls in.      

Something's happening and it's not making the news??? Appears that way      to me.      

peace      

mc       

FROM:       http://www.syzygyjob.net/dreams/messages/23742.shtml

March 21, 2004

Hello Dee,      

       
I found your great dreams website a few days ago while researching visions & prophetic dreams.  I first became clairaudient in 1992 and have experienced visions and prophetic dreams since that time.  My oldest child is an intuitive tarot reader. My second child can see &  read auras. My third child appears to be gifted with precognition, & my youngest child has begun experiencing prophetic dreams and visions during the past few months.      
       
After reading about the Yellowstone volcano, I thought it important to email you, and share a couple of clairaudient messages I had received...one from 2 years ago, and one just last week.  Also, I wanted to share a prophetic dream my youngest child shared with me on March 17, 2004.  About 2 years ago, while casually surfing on the internet, I received the following clairaudient message: "The sleeping giant is starting to wake up."  Naturally, I immediately tried to research what "the sleeping giant" was.  I concluded it had to be a volcano, but I had no idea which one.  I finally wound up emailing a volcanologist to ask which volcano was known as the "sleeping giant."  He couldn't help me as he said all dormant volcanoes were considered to be sleeping.  I was stumped. I tried to research the "sleeping giant" some more but couldn't find anything, and I eventually gave up.....until I read about what is happening at Yellowstone.       
       
Last week I received a message to purchase 24 candles. It didn't make sense to me. I thought maybe it was tied to "the 3 days of darkness." Then I dismissed that idea, because I figured 24 candles wouldn't be enough for a 72-hour period.  Then I did some more reading, & learned that the candles needed for the 3 day period are supposed to be blessed and made of beeswax.  Then I did some reading on beeswax candles, because I couldn't really understand the need for beeswax.  What I learned was that beeswax apparently burns cleaner & lasts longer because of it's purity.  I also learned  that one 8"  beeswax taper typically lasts about 3 hours. That means one could expect to use 8 candles in a 24 hour period....or 24 candles in a 72-hour period...3 days.      
       
Since my child first began receiving prophetic dreams and visions a few months ago, one of the difficulties being encountered is that there are never any dates or times being given for any of the events he has seen.  I suggested that perhaps it would be a good idea to ask to be shown a clock or calendar when the dream begins to perhaps pinpoint their occurrence.  In the dream, he looks out the window and it's a beautiful sunny day.  All of the snow is gone, and this strikes him as  being odd, since it's supposed to still be winter outside.  He decides to go look at the calendar hanging on the kitchen wall. He sees the calendar has changed. Instead of it being March...the month is July, but there is no year. In the bottom right corner are 2 months, one is July (which he thinks is odd since it is already on the month of July) and the other month is August. Another strange thing he observes is that although we have currently a 'Scottie dog" calendar, there is no Scottie dog for the month of July....just a scene with a lake.  Dates are highlighted in blue circles on the calendar for the month of July:  the dates are; July 3rd, July 14th, and July 24th. However, there are no dates highlighted for  the month of August.      
       
In view of what is currently happening at Yellowstone, I felt perhaps the messages I had received, along with his prophetic dream might be of some significance.  If I should receive any additional messages, I would be happy to pass them on. Everything I have related about my son's dream is exactly as he told me.      
       
If you  should wish to share this on your website, you have my permission.      
       
Love & Light      
       
Lazarus      

       

 

January 10, 2004 emergency posting (note the government pages were      taken down shortly after I captured this information) ... this morning 90      miles from anchorage Alaska a 7.1 earth quake registered and there has been      an unusual silence in the news media ... as it confirms my ongoing contention      that many of these quakes are due to solar flaring as was the case with the      Alaska quake ... however the pressing issue remains with the Yellowstone      volcano situation which is in a geological cycle to erupt again ... scroll      down to listen to my January 8, 2004 radio show archive for details ... i      have also noticed what appears to be continual influx of comets from the      south with the SOHO data being altered or outright deleted almost daily now      ... jim mccanney       

C/2001 Q4      (NEAT)       is ~14.5 mg very slowly brightening,      but it may be a bright comet by 2004. Perihelion will be on May 15, 2004.      The comet is in Phynix, very low in the South and practically       unobservable      in all of 2003. C/2002 Q4 -      where to see      

January 2004 Yellowstone Seismicity Summary      

During January 2004, 71 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone region.      The largest shock to occur during this period was a magnitude 2.7 earthquake      on January 17 at 12:29 AM MST, located about 15.7 miles south southeast of      Old Faithful, Wyoming.      

Earthquake activity in the Yellowstone region is at background levels.      

      

    

MORE QUAKES IN WYOMING

1-21-04 MINOR earthquake rattles sleepy Wyoming

Washington - An earthquake with a magnitude of 4.7 rattled Jackson, Wyoming, early on Wednesday, according to a report from the United States Geological Survey ...

New 'Third' Earthquake Hits Near Yellowstone Super-Volcano...02/20/04

Just two hours ago, a new 3.2 mag. earthquake has hit right next to Yellowstone Super-Volcano. It is reported to have occurred 25 miles east/northeast of Jackson, WY.

http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_fdad.html

1) 5.3 mag. Feb. 6th (Newcastle) The missing earthquake 2) 3.5 mag. Feb 15th (Douglas) 3) 3.2 mag. Feb 21st (Jackson)

WY Earthquake Serves as Wake Up Call KSL-TV
An earthquake shook northwestern Wyoming early this morning. It registered a 5 on the Richter scale.

EARTHQUAKES rattle Jackson ... near Newcastle reported an earthquake that registered 2.1 on the Richter scale just before 8 pm Earthquakes are much more unusual in northeastern Wyoming ...

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

2004/01/07 09:54:38 43.61N 110.36W 5.0 2.9 WYOMING 2004/01/07 09:34:03 43.58N 110.38W 5.0 3.2 WYOMING 2004/01/07 09:23:46 43.60N 110.35W 5.0 4.0 WYOMING 2004/01/07 08:44:21 43.61N 110.31W 5.0 4.1 WYOMING 2004/01/07 08:36:48 43.57N 110.43W 5.0 3.4 WYOMING 2004/01/07 08:27:01 43.57N 110.33W 5.0 3.7 WYOMING 2004/01/07 08:13:20 43.59N 110.42W 5.0 3.0 WYOMING 2004/01/07 07:51:37 43.58N 110.39W 5.0 5.0 WYOMING

YELLOWSTONE  HEALTH PROBLEMS

Listen to On Site Report from Pam Schuffert

 mp3 From: http://www.themedianews.com/

Yellowstone is always shifting. Last year, typical for the era when such measurements have been made, there were about 2,300 earthquakes in the park.

RUSSIAN QUAKES RELIEVE STRESSES AT YELLOWSTONE JAPANESE QUAKES RELIEVE STRESSES AT YELLOWSTONE

10-6-03 - Yellowstone ground was 200 degrees

9-17-03 - People who have been at Yellowstone are saying that more and more areas are being roped off, but the media isn't reporting this news.  The ground is getting hotter and hotter.

9-12-03 - WHAT'S NEW?  USGS SAYS 'NOTHING'!!!  YEAH RIGHT!!!!

9-10-03 -   3.3   http://wwwneic.cr.usgs.gov/neis/states/wyoming/last_event.html

9-7-03 - Numerous micro-quakes occurring

After a 4.4 quake on 8-21-03, 9 aftershocks have occurred along with a resonance in the rock, which can cause softening of the rock. If a fissure occurs in the rock, everyone within 600 miles should be prepared for the sudden blast. There may be no precursor quakes prior to a blast at Yellowstone Supervolcano.  If it blows, there will be no life within 600 miles except those people who have prepared a place underneath the  ground.  Even airplanes within the area could be blown out of the sky according to Larry Park, an earthquake researcher who was interviewed on the coasttocoastam.com George Noory show on 8-25-03. If the Supervolcano blows, it will cause an immediate nuclear winter of dirt and ash in the air over the entire world for 2 years. He also stated that there will be no crops grown in the midwest U.S. for that same period of time.

Larry Parks warns that people within that 600 miles should make preparations to survive the possible blast.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

There is a bulge over 100 feet high in the bottom of Yellowstone Lake.  The area under the northern end of the lake near Mary Bay say that the bulge could have been formed by carbon dioxide or steam. The water in the lake which normally gets no warmer than 66 degrees has now reached 85 degrees.  The bulge, which is about 2,100 feet long, has been formed only within the last few years.  "We're thinking this structure could be a precursor to a hydrothermal explosive event, but we don't think this is a volcano," Lisa Morgan, geologist from USGS said.  A Mary Bay explosion would likely cause a large crater, 1- foot waves, and a release or rocks and poisonous gas.  Mary Bay itself is the world's largest hydrothermal explosion crater.  The USGS team hopes to prepare a damage assessment this fall.

Watch this map

Click for latest map

Seismograms at Yellowstone

 

 

 

From: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Yellowstone/OFR95-59/OFR95-59_inlined.html

Yellowstone is a great smoldering pit -a caldera 30 miles across, 45 miles long, and several thousand feet deep - the ground having fallen into the huge underground cavern that was left by the earth-shaking eruptions. Lava then began oozing from the cracks to fill the still smoking caldera.

Yellowstone has gone off roughly once every 600,000 years. Its last eruption was 640,000 years ago. The next explosion is already overdue.

Typically, supervolcanoes are not mountains but depressions, huge collapsed craters called calderas, which are hard to detect.

The Yellowstone caldera is 70 kilometres long and 30 km wide. Eight km beneath the Earth's surface lies a huge magma chamber, containing vast amounts of molten rock.

As pressure rises in the chamber, the surface is also rising and there is a measurable increase in heat. But vulcanologists do not know when Yellowstone will blow.

A natural history of global disasters, portrays a possible Yellowstone explosion in 2074, says there have been two such events every 100,000 years for the last two million years.

The areas where supervolcanoes are most likely to be found, he says, are subduction zones, where the Earth's plates are dipping below one another. The Pacific Rim and southeast Asia are especially vulnerable.

But there is a caldera in the Phlegraean Fields near Naples in southern Italy. Dr Ted Nield, of the Geological Society of London, told BBC News Online: "It could do the same as Yellowstone, though on a smaller scale".

DREAM OF YELLOWSTONE      

Friday October 10,2003 4:44am (cdt)      

I was in a very large underground military or research facility though      not sure where. It was a huge open room with several hundred people working      or standing in small groups discussing what appeared to be computer print-outs      and maps.      

I saw rows of computers with men and women sitting in front of them. I      saw seismic drums along one wall (about 100 of them) all in a row. Next to      each of these were metal bins of some sort and they were catching computer      print-outs from these drums?       

Have never seen metal bins like these next to seismic drums. Several people      were retrieving the print-outs from the bins and then discussing them.      

The most prominent feature in this open area was a huge screen upon one      wall displaying a map of the US, Canada, and Mexico.      

All the states were outlined and labled, including Canada and Mexico.      There was a large Red circle (shaded in) covering Yellowstone Park and some      of its surrounding areas.      

Beyond this there was a very large irregular area of the US and Canada      and a tiny part of Mexico shaded in Orange. All of WA, OR, ID, MT, WY, CO,      NM, ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, MN, WI, IA, MO, IL, LA, AR were covered in Orange.      

Northern California, most of NV, UT and,TX were also shaded in Orange.      The areas of Canada which border on the US were also shaded Orange with the      largest area being to the north and east of MN. Southwestern BC and Vancouver      Island were shaded in Orange and a small area of Mexico just below NM and      the Big Bend of TX.      

There were shaded areas extending over the Pacific from the Queen Charlotte      Islands down to San Francisco. Only the the        northeastern part of AZ was shaded.      The western areas of IN, TN, and MS were also shaded in Orange.      

There were other smaller screens on each side of the huge one. These screens      showed the same map of US, Canada, Mexico but appeared to be some kind of      weather tracking maps. They showed weather radar, wind directions, the jet      streams, satellite images, aviation info and the like.      

Now I have no clue what exactly was occurring but there was clearly a      situation and the people in the room were looking very intense, worried and      they were all very busy, not one slacker in the room.      

From the looks of it, Yellowstone seemed to be at the center of all this      activity as it was circled in bright Red on the huge map. I do not know what      the Orange shading was about.      

This is all I recall. I was awakened by a loud electronic sound in my      ear and I sat up looked at my clock which read 4:44am (again!).      

I've been reading my journals and believe this is added information related      to yesterday morning's dream which I posted below, and also the dream of      October 3rd which I also posted.      

I wasn't able to get back yesterday due to the weather so will catch up      as much as possible now before the next round of storms rolls in.      

Something's happening and it's not making the news??? Appears that way      to me.      

Comments welcome!      

peace      

mc

      

THE YELLOWSTONE      WEBCAM      

 

THE YELLOWSTONE CALDERA      

The most recent caldera-forming eruption about 650,000 years ago produced      a caldera 53 x 28 miles (85 x 45 kilometers) across in what is now Yellowstone      National Park (Figure 2). During that eruption, ground-hugging flows of hot      volcanic ash, pumice, and gases swept across an area of more than 3,000 square      miles. When these enormous pyroclastic flows finally stopped, they solidified      to form a layer of rock called the Lava Creek Tuff. Its volume was about      240 cubic miles (1,000 cubic kilometers), enough material to cover Wyoming      with a layer 13 feet thick or the entire conterminous United States with      a layer 5 inches thick. The Lava Creek Tuff has been exposed by erosion at      Tuff Cliff, a popular Yellowstone attraction along the lower Gibbon River.      

The eruption also shot a column of volcanic ash and gases high into Earth's      stratosphere. This volcanic cloud circled the globe many times and affected      Earth's climate by reducing the intensity of solar radiation reaching the      lower atmosphere and surface. Fine volcanic ash that fell downwind from the      eruption site blanketed much of North America. This ash layer is still preserved      in deposits as far away as Iowa, where it is a few inches thick, and the      Gulf of Mexico, where it is recognizable in drill cores from the sea floor.      

Lava flows have since buried and obscured most of the caldera, but the      underlying processes responsible for Yellowstone's  tremendous volcanic eruptions      are still at work. Eventually, another "bead" may be added to Yellowstone's      300-mile-long string of calderas, with global consequences that are beyond      human experience and impossible to anticipate fully.      

      

Courtesy of: http://www.news.wisc.edu/newsphotos/images/volano_lg.jpg      

 

NORRIS GEYSER BASIN      

A temporary closure at Norris has been in effect since July 23, 2003.      The closure is clearly marked and covers most of the western portion of the      Back Basin trail starting at the Norris Museum. The foot trail itself is      at boiling temperatures and the potential for a steam explosion is considered      to be very high. While predictions can be made for volcanic explosions, steam      explosions cannot be predicted. Steamboat and Echinus Geysers and all of      Porcelain Basin remain open to the public      

In July, 2003, Yellowstone Park rangers closed the entire Norris      Geyser Basin because of deformation of the land and excessive high ground temperatures. There is an area that is 28 miles long by 7      miles wide that has bulged upward over five inches since 1996, and this year the ground temperature on that bulge has reached over      200 degrees (measured one inch below ground level).      

There was no choice but to close off the entire area. Everything in      this area is dying: The trees, flowers, grass and shrubs. A dead zone is developing and spreading outward. The animals are literally      migrating out of the park.      

Then during the last part of July one of the Park geologists      discovered a huge bulge at the bottom of Yellowstone Lake. The bulge has already risen over 100 feet from the bottom of the lake and the water      temperature at the surface of the bulge has reached 88 degrees and is still rising.      

Keep in mind that Yellowstone Lake is a high mountain lake with very      cold water temperatures. The Lake is now closed to the public. It is filled with dead fish floating everywhere. The same is true of the      Yellowstone river and most of the other streams in the Park. Dead and dying fish are filling the water everywhere.      

Many of the picnic areas in the Park have been closed and people      visiting the Park usually stay but a few hours before leaving since the stench of sulfur is so strong they literally can't stand the smell.      

The irony of all this is the silence by the news media and our      government. Very little information is available from Yellowstone personnel or publications. What mainstream newsstories do appear      underscore the likelihood of a massive volcanic eruption. Though geologists publicly admit Yellowstone is “overdue,” they have      been quoted as stating another massive magma release may not occur for 100,000 or 2 million years. Others close to the story      are convinced that a massive eruption is imminent. A source that has demonstrated first-hand knowledge of the park's history and      recent geothermal events stated the following: “The American people are not being told that the explosion of this 'super volcano' could      happen at any moment. When Yellowstone does blow, some geologists predict that every living thing within six hundred miles is      likely to die. The movement of magma has been detected just three-tenths of a mile below the bulging surface of the ground in      Yellowstone raising concerns that this super volcano may erupt soon.”

~~~~~~~~

 

After 8 years, Yellowstone geyser erupts

Staff and agencies       15 June, 2006      

Wed Jun 14, 9:12 AM ET      

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo. - A large geyser that hadn‘t      erupted since 1998 surprised two hikers near the edge of Norris Geyser      Basin with a roar and burst of steam.      

The geyser erupted at full bore around 5 p.m. Saturday, sending a      plume of steam about 100 feet high.      

Watry, who works for the Yellowstone Association, said they were      shocked at the show that unfolded about a quarter-mile away.      

The eruption coincided with other unusual activity at Norris over      the weekend, including the eruption of other sporadic geysers and changes      in surface water. Henry Heasler, Yellowstone‘s lead geologist, said      Norris appeared to be undergoing a "thermal disturbance" — an      infrequent and often sudden shift in activity.      

Such disturbances result from subsurface activity that brings water      closer to the surface.      

Among other changes, the usually quiet Vixen geyser has been      erupting, Pearl geyser‘s water has changed from clear to opalescent, and      water elsewhere in the basin has turned murky.      

 

Scott Bryan, author of "The Geysers of Yellowstone," said      Ledge was active in the early 1970s until a thermal disturbance in 1974.      After that, eruptions were less frequent until 1979, when it quieted down      completely.
© 2006 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.
      

       Norris      News

BLUE GEYSER      

Blue Geyser was called Iris Spring      in 1886. Due to a misread map label, in 1904 the feature was inadvertently      given its current name. It was observed to erupt to heights of over 60 feet from 1993 to 1996. It became almost dormant in 1997 and has remained very      quiet ever since. Blue Geyser's last observed eruption was in February of      1997.      

 

LEDGE GEYSER      

Ledge is the second largest      geyser in the Norris Geyser Basin, capable of shooting water 125 feet into      the air. Because it erupts at an angle, however, the water will sometimes      reach the ground 220 feet away. It has at times in the past erupted at regular      intervals of 14 hours. The geyser became inactive between 1979 and late 1993.      It erupted on a fairly regular cycle of every four to six days in 1994 and      1995.      

 

WHIRLIGIG GEYSER      

Little Whirligig got its      name because of its close proximity to Whirligig Geyser. Whirligig was so named because while erupting its water swirls in its crater. The orange-yellow      iron oxide deposits around Little Whirligig make it one of the most colorful      features in Porcelain Basin. It has been dormant for several years.      

 

BLACK GROWLER STEAM VENT      

The hottest of Yellowstone's      geothermal features are steam vents (fumaroles). Black Growler Steam Vent,      on the hillside in front of you, has measured 199 to 280 degrees F (93 to      138 degrees C). A plentiful water supply would help cool these features;      however, steam vents are usually found on hillsides or higher ground, above      the basin's water supply. They rapidly boil away what little water they contain,      releasing steam and other gases forcefully from  underground.      

 

STEAMBOAT GEYSER      

The world's tallest active      geyser, Steamboat can erupt to more than 300 feet (90m), showering viewers with its mineral-rich waters. For hours following its rare 3 to 40 minute      major eruptions, Steamboat thunders with powerful jets of steam. As befitting      such an awesome event, full eruptions are entirely unpredictable. In recent      years, Steamboat has had three major eruptions. This photo is the May 2,      2000 eruption.      

More commonly, Steamboat has minor eruptions and ejects water in frequent      bursts of 10 to 40 feet.      

 
 Feb.           27, 2007
          Yellowstone Geyser Event Was A 'Burp'

BILLINGS, Mont. (AP) -           Scientists have classified a spout of steam earlier this month at           Steamboat geyser in Yellowstone National Park as a "forceful minor           eruption" -- or, in other words, a "burp."

Unlike Old Faithful, the Steamboat geyser erupts irregularly.           Its last major eruption was in 2005. After a quiet period, lasting           from 1991 to May 2000, the geyser has had seven major eruptions in           seven years.

On February 11th, park visitors and staff saw steam. On February           21st, they saw a plume of steam rise several hundred feet in the air,           and observed a draining of nearby Cistern Spring, which often           accompanies an eruption.

Major eruptions typically force thousands of gallons of water up           through the geyser, which did not happen on either occasion in           February.

PORKSHOP GEYSER      

Dramatic behavioral changes      have characterized Porkchop Geyser during the last decade. Once a small hot      spring that occasionally erupted, Porkchop Geyser became a continuous spouter      in the spring of 1985. The force of the spray caused a roar that could be      heard at the museum over 660 yards (603m) away. On September 5, 1989, Porkchop      Geyser exploded. Rocks surrounding the old vent were upended and some were      thrown more than 216 feet (66m) from the feature. Porkchop Geyser is now      a gently rolling hot spring.      

 

MINUTE GEYSER      

Minute Geyser's eruptions have      changed dramatically. Its larger west vent is clogged with rocks tossed in      by early visitors when the park's main road was near this trail and passed      within 70 feet of the geyser. Minute once erupted every 60 seconds, sometimes      to heights of 40 to 50 feet (12 to 15 meters). Eruptions now are irregular      and originate from its smaller east vent. Removal of the west vent's      mineral-cemented rocks would require the use of heavy equipment resulting      in severe damage.      

 

ECHINUS GEYSER      

Echinus (e-KI-nus) Geyser      was a perennial crowd-pleaser which typically erupted every 35 to 75 minutes.      Late in 1998 this geyser altered its interval and now erupts only a few times      per day at best. Its pool fills gradually with water; then suddenly, bursts      of steam and water explode 40 to 60 feet (12 to 18 m) skyward. Eruptions      usually last about 4 minutes but in the past major eruptions have lasted      as long as 118 minutes. The major eruptions were believed to be caused by      a secondary water source which has mysteriously vanished. There has not been      a major eruption in 3 years. In late 1998 Echinus' performance diminished      and became erratic. As of mid-1999 its eruptions remain unpredictable.      

Echinus is the largest acid-water geyser known. Its waters are almost      as acidic as vinegar with a pH ranging from 3.3 to 3.6 . Acid geysers are      extremely rare with the majority of the planet's total being found here at      Norris Geyser Basin.      

 

Hot Waters Yellowstone's hot springs and hydrothermal features (red)      extend far beyond the famous areas accessible from the highways. Most of the      hot spring areas and geyser basins are inside the ring fracture of the calderas      (dashed black line). A second group are along a buried fault that extends      from Mammoth Hot Springs south through Roaring Mountain and Norris Geyser      basin, and through the caldera to the south. Inside the caldera, hot spring      and geyser areas are concentrated where the late obsidian flows are not —       the heat and hot water are presumably still there, but the obsidian seals      them in. Includes both active and extinct hydrothermal systems.
Yellowstone Depths Reveal Rock Plume       By Larry O'Hanlon, Discovery News
      April 8, 2005 — A remarkable new view into the depths beneath       Yellowstone has revealed what may be a strange "beheaded plume" of hot rock  welling up from the Earth's mantle. 
      The discovery not only sheds light on the cause of Yellowstone's amazing       geysers and gigantic prehistoric eruptions, but it's a preview of how the      latest 3-D seismic tomographic imaging will very soon be revealing      hidden structures in  the ground under the entire continental U.S.,      said Yellowstone researcher Bob  Smith of the University of Utah. 

Smith made the announcement last week in the keynote address for at the      first national meeting of the Earthscope program. "I call this      the ancestral Earthscope experiment," said Smith of the extensive      Yellowstone seismic and Global Positioning System (GPS) network. Using      Yellowstone's unusually dense network of seismic stations in and around      the national park, Smith and other researchers of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory      have been able to gather data of how seismic waves from earthquakes move through the ground there to create a three-dimensional image of the structures      deep under Yellowstone. 
      What they have found is a giant column, where seismic waves are slowed by       extra hot and partially melted rocks, which extends down 410 miles and      then stops. The column is tilted to the northwest at depth, another      strange feature, Smith said. 
Among the possible explanations for the tilted column of hot rock is      that it is a plume of material that started way down at the edge       of      the Earth's core, buoyed upwards and then got caught up in the      conveyer-belt-like flow in the Earth's mantle (the region beneath the      crust). 
      As the plume got stretched to the east by the easterly mantle flow, it was stretched      so thin that it broke apart, was "beheaded," Smith explained.       What is seen under Yellowstone, extending down to 410 miles, is just the      head of the plume, with rest of it detached and still down in the mantle      somewhere to  the west or northwest. 

"This is what really drives the Yellowstone system today,"      said Smith of the much smaller, but still huge, magma body that lies directly atop the plume and  directly under Yellowstone's geysers. 
      More such 3-D views into the interior of North America can be expected in      a  few years as Earthscope's USArray program marches a 44-mile grid      of 400 seismographs west to east over the contiguous U.S. states and      Alaska in the next five years, said Smith. The  US Array has already      scores of seismographs in place in California. 

"Unlike the 40 years Smith has had to collect data, Earthscope      reports all the data for everybody without waiting for years and years," said Kaye Shedlock,  of Earthscope. "At the      end of five years we'll have a marvelous new set of data," agreed Smith. 
      Other aspects of Earthscope include a continental network of GPS stations      to watch in real time as the continent changes shape, called the      Plate Boundary Observatory, and an experiment that is drilling      directly into the San Andreas Fault in California.  http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20050404/yellowstone_print.html
      

"When it's  not horses, and you're still hearing hoof      beats, then think zebras"

When the volcano in Yellowstone National Park blew 6,400 centuries      ago, it obliterated a mountain range, felled herds of prehistoric camels      hundreds of miles away and left a smoking hole in the ground the size of      the Los Angeles Basin.      

Rangers tell people to keep their distance from bison and steaming geysers.      But there are no signs, aside from nature's own bubbling       mud pots and geysers,      that visitors are wandering through the caldera of one of the largest active      volcanoes in the world.      

"This is a geologic park, and not many know it," said Robert Smith, a      geophysicist at the University of Utah who has spent his career piecing together      the story of the Yellowstone volcano. "It's not a bison park. Not an elk      park. It's a geologic park."      

New sensors have allowed researchers to confirm a suspicion that Smith      has held for a long time: that the ancient volcano scientists dub "the beast"      is a living force. The instruments record a continuing pattern of heaving      and bulging and act as an early warning system.      

Installed without fanfare and hidden from view, the sensitive devices      are an acknowledgment that the past could be prologue, that this seemingly      serene plateau could blow so hard it would make the 1980 Mount St. Helens      explosion look like a sneeze.      

Stepped-Up Monitoring      

This summer, Yellowstone was added to the nation's handful of official      volcano observatories. The others, smaller but far better known, are in Hawaii,      Alaska, the Cascades, and California's Long Valley.      

The Yellowstone observatory consists of a string of 28 electronic detection      stations scattered through the park. Related plans call       for at least 100      more monitoring sites.      

For Smith, who argued for years that the volcano deserved more attention      than it was getting, the observatory is sweet vindication.  The beast is finally      getting its due.      

What took so long for science to put its ear to the ground, given the      fact that geophysicists have known for 30 years that Yellowstone was a major      volcanic system?      

For one thing, Smith said, they couldn't decide whether the Yellowstone      system was still active or in its death throes. For another, it doesn't look      like a volcano.      

It's just too big. From a viewpoint on the north rim of the caldera,      a few miles from the Yellowstone River's Upper and Lower Falls, the southern      edge of the caldera is obscured. It's more than 30 miles (50 kilometers)      away—well within the massive park, but lost in the haze.      

The last huge eruption was 640,000 years ago. Since then, a series of      smaller ones have filled in the caldera "like tubes of toothpaste squeezing      out all over the place," Smith said. The 3,000-foot-thick (one kilometer-thick)      glaciers of the last Ice Age erased edges of the caldera, which is now a      broad, undulating plateau rimmed by mountains.      

The Earth has always shaken periodically around Yellowstone. But without      the proper monitoring equipment in place, no one knew how often it happened      or why. Smith, who has been investigating here for more than 30 years, set      up seismometers and found earthquakes by the hundreds.      

The Basin and Range country that extends from California to Montana is      one of the most seismically active regions east of  California's San Andreas      Fault. It is being stretched apart as tectonic plates beneath it move.      

But the earthquakes Smith started tracking three decades ago—15,000      between 1973 and 1998, often in swarms—didn't altogether       fit conventional      notions of seismicity. There were quakes where you would expect them to occur,      along north/south fault lines perpendicular to the stretching. But there      were also some along parallel fault lines—activity that seemed to have      no relation to the stretching.      

Smith started thinking about the quakes in combination with Yellowstone's      famously unstable plumbing. Was it possible that both the quakes and the      geysers were products of volcanic action, of underground magma flows?      

Hot Spot      

Atop a volcano, mountains are pushed up by swelling magma; the subsequent      explosion then destroys them and engulfs their remains.      

In 1965 a team led by Robert Christiansen of the U.S. Geological Survey      mapped the massive caldera and various lava flows in      detail while NASA tried      out a new remote-sensing technology in the region.      

"It was not a surprise it was a young volcano," Christiansen recalled.      "It was a surprise it was as young as it is."      

He turned to Smith, whose seismic data would reveal whether the volcano      was still rumbling. Together, the two men were able to see the system for      what it was: a very active and large volcano that had sculpted much of the      Northwest.      

Smith and Christiansen saw evidence that a huge plume of magma rose from      deep within the Earth and bore through the continental plate. As the plate      moved southwest, the "hot spot" left a series of what Smith terms "ancient      Yellowstones" across a 500-mile (800-kilometer) swath of southern Idaho from      Oregon to Montana.      

The hot-spot theory was dismissed when it was introduced by Smith in      1973. Accepted wisdom said volcanoes were found at the edges of tectonic      plates and that hot spots occur mainly on the seafloor. "It took people a      while to catch on," Smith said.      

The evidence, ultimately, was incontrovertible.      

There was the blasted topography, the layers of lava flows, the misaligned      earthquake faults and Yellowstone's superheated, effervescent plumbing. Only      one force was big enough to account for it all: a massive volcano. What Smith      still didn't know was whether it was asleep.      

In the mid-1970s, while surveying an old benchmark put into place when      the first roads were cut through Yellowstone in 1923, Smith found that the      ground had risen three feet (one meter) in five decades.      

There could be only one explanation. The volcano was bulging upward.      Smith and his students spent two years confirming the observation. By 1979,      when he published the findings in the journal Science, even skeptics were      becoming convinced that Yellowstone was an active volcano.      

The caldera rose an inch a year until 1985. Then a swarm of earthquakes      occurred nearby. By 1987 measurements showed that the caldera was falling      an inch (2.5 centimeters) a year. In 1995 it started rising again. The caldera      is now bulging again, toward the southwest.      

Confirmation that the volcano was active was one of the most important      factors in getting a new observatory established here. The movement of the      volcano also suggests a controversial new idea forcing many geologists to      rethink the very definition of hot spots and how they work.      

Will It Blow Again?      

Until Smith came along, most scientists believed that hot spots originate      1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers) down, at the boundary between the Earth's      core and mantle. The newly revealed geology of Yellowstone suggests that      this hot spot might be very shallow, born of the vagaries of heat and changing      pressures or some other process yet unknown.      

As far as it goes, the scientists work has yet to answer the most important      question of all: Will the volcano blow its top again?      

New studies by a research team at the University of Wisconsin that analyzed      tiny crystals within hardened lava suggest a "dying, but still potent, cycle      of volcanism."      

Some people believe that the hot spot is moving under the Rocky Mountains,      a much thicker and colder part of the continent, and that it will be effectively      capped. Others contend that the cap won't stop the fury of the hot spot.      

Smith and Christiansen can't say for sure, but they know the volcano      is not dead. There is no reason, they say, it won't blow again.      

Christiansen doubts the likelihood of another cataclysmic eruption any      time soon, but he doesn't rule out something smaller. Earthquakes, rock slides,      and steam explosions from geyser basins are all possible. A blowout on the      scale of Mount St. Helens is conceivable, he said, adding: "We need to be      prepared."      

Copyright 2001 Ogden Publishing Corporation (for StandardNet)



25/03/2014
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